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History[ edit ] A Roman coin with the head of Pompey the Great on the obverse and a ship on the reverse The historical origin of coin flipping is the interpretation of a chance outcome as the expression of divine will.
Coin flipping was known to the Romans as navia aut caput "ship or head"as some coins had a ship on one side and the head of the emperor on the other. Either beforehand or when the coin is in the air, an interested party calls "heads" or "tails", indicating which side of the coin that party is choosing.
The other party is assigned the opposite side.
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Depending on custom, the coin may be caught; caught and inverted; or allowed to land on the ground. When the coin comes to rest, the toss is complete and the party who called correctly or was assigned the upper side is declared the winner. It is possible for a coin to land on its side, usually by landing up against an object such as a shoe or by getting stuck in the ground. However, even on a flat surface it is possible for a coin to land on its edge.
A computational este o monedă suggests that the chance of a coin landing on its edge and staying there is este o monedă 1 in for an American nickel. Such cases in which a coin does land on its edge are exceptionally rare and in most cases the coin is simply re-flipped. In cases where such things occur the coin is to be re tossed.
The coin may be any type as long as it has two distinct sides; it need not be a circulating coin as such. Larger coins tend to be more popular than smaller ones.
Some high-profile coin tosses, such as the Cricket World Cup and the Super Bowl, use custom-made ceremonial medallions.
Articole principale: Atelier monetar roman și Monedă romană. La început, monedele romane erau bătute în Templul Iunonei Moneta  aflat pe Capitoliul din Roma. De aici a ajuns, până la noi, prin intermediul limbilor franceză și italiană, cuvântul monedă, cu varianta, mai puțin folosită și considerată în prezent incorectă, monetă.
To choose two out of three, three coins are flipped, and if two coins come up the same and one different, the different one loses is outleaving two players. To choose one out of three, either reverse this the odd coin out is the winneror add a regular two-way coin flip between the remaining players as a second step.
A famous example of such a three-way coin flip choose two out of three is dramatized in Friday Night Lights originally a booksubsequently film and TV seriesthree Texas high school football teams use a three-way este o monedă flip. Use in dispute resolution[ edit ] The coin toss at the start of Super Bowl XLIII Coin tossing is a simple and unbiased way of settling a dispute or deciding between two or more arbitrary options. In a game theoretic analysis it provides even odds to both sides involved, requiring little effort and preventing the dispute from escalating into a struggle.
It is used widely in sports and other games to decide arbitrary factors such as which side of the field a team este o monedă play from, or which side will attack or defend initially; these decisions may tend to favor one side, or may be neutral.
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Factors such as wind direction, the position of the sun, and other este o monedă may affect the decision. In team sports it is often the captain who makes the call, while the umpire or referee usually oversees such proceedings. A competitive method may be used instead of a toss in some situations, for example in basketball the jump ball is employed, while the face-off plays a similar role in ice hockey.
In the U. The original XFLa short-lived American football league, attempted to avoid coin tosses by implementing a face-off style "opening scramble," in which one player from each team tried to recover a loose football; the team whose player recovered the ball got first choice. Because of the high rate of injury in these events, it has not achieved mainstream popularity in any football league a modified version was adopted by X-League Indoor Footballin which each player pursued his own balland coin tossing remains the este o monedă of choice in American football.
The revived XFLstarting play inwill forego the coin toss altogether and allow that decision to be made as part of a team's home field advantage.
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In an association football match, the team winning the coin toss chooses which goal to attack in the first half; the opposing team kicks off for the first half. For the second half, the teams switch ends, and the team that won the coin toss kicks off. Coin tosses are also used to decide which team has the pick of going first or second in a penalty shoot-out.
Before the earlys introduction of the penalty shootoutcoin tosses were occasionally needed to decide the outcome of tied matches.
The most famous instance of this was the semifinal game of the European Championship in Italy between Italy and the Soviet Unionwhich finished after extra time. Italy won, and went on to become European champions.
Shown are Don Bradman and Gubby Allen tossing for innings.
In cricket the toss is often significant, as the decision whether to bat or bowl first can influence the outcome of the game. Similarly, in tennis a coin toss is used in professional matches to determine which player serves first. Este o monedă player who wins este o monedă toss decides whether to serve first or return, while the loser of the toss decides which end of the court each player plays on first.
In duels a coin toss was sometimes used to determine which combatant had the sun at his back. The National Football League also has a coin toss for tie-breaking among teams for playoff berths and seeding, but the rules make the need for coin toss, which is random rather than competitive, very unlikely. A similar procedure breaks ties for the purposes of este o monedă in the NFL Draft ; these coin tosses are more common, since the tie-breaking procedure for the draft is much less elaborate than the one used for playoff seeding.
Major League Baseball once conducted a series of coin flips as a contingency on the last month of its regular season to determine home teams for any potential one-game playoff games that might need to be added to the regular season. Most of these cases did not occur.
From the seasonthe method to determine home-field advantage was changed. Although in most international matches this is now done electronically by the scoring apparatus. Pettygrovewho each owned the claim to the land that would later become Portland, Oregonwanted to name the new town after their respective hometowns of Boston, Massachusetts and Portland, Maine ; Pettygrove won the coin flip.
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Network Ten won. Philippines[ edit ] " Drawing of lots " is one of the methods to break ties to determine a winner in an election; the coin flip is considered an acceptable variant. Each candidate will be given five chances to flip a coin; the candidate with the most number of "heads" wins. The mayoral election in San Teodoro, Oriental Mindoro was decided on a coin flip, with a winner being proclaimed after the second round when both candidates remained tied in the first round.
Under state law, the election was to be decided by drawing a name from a bowl, although a coin toss would also have been an acceptable option.
The chair of the Board of Elections drew the film canister with Yancey's name, and he was declared the winner. A Yancey win extended the Republican advantage to 51—49, whereas a Simmonds win would have resulted in a 50—50 tie.
As there is cum să ștergeți câștigurile acasă provision for breaking ties in the House as a whole, this would have forced a power sharing agreement between the two parties. They have demonstrated that a mechanical coin flipper which imparts the same initial conditions for every toss has a highly predictable outcome — the phase space is fairly regular.
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Further, in actual flipping, people exhibit slight bias — "coin tossing is fair este o monedă two decimals but not to three. That is, typical flips show biases such as. This proved difficult to use, and rotation rate was more accurately computed by attaching floss to a coin, such that it would wind around the coin — after a flip, one could count rotations by unwinding the floss, and then compute rotation rate as flips over air time. Coin spinning is much more likely to be biased than flipping, and conjurers trim the edges of coins so that when spun they usually land on a particular face.
Counterintuitive properties[ edit ] Human intuition about conditional probability is often very poor and can give rise to some seemingly surprising observations. For example, if the successive tosses of a coin are recorded as a string of "H" and "T", then for any trial of tosses, it is twice as likely that the triplet TTH will occur before THT than after it.
In the study of statistics, coin-flipping plays the role of being an introductory example of the complexities of statistics. A commonly treated textbook topic is that of checking if a coin is fair.
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Further information: Commitment scheme There is no reliable way to use a true coin flip to settle a dispute between two parties if they cannot both see the coin—for example, over the phone.
The flipping party could easily lie about the outcome of este o monedă toss. In telecommunications and cryptographythe following algorithm can be used: Alice and Bob each choose a random string, e. Alice chooses an outcome for an imaginary coin flip, such as "tail". Bob sends Alice his random string qzahziynii.
Alice immediately computes a cryptographic hash of the string "tail" salted with the two random strings, and sends it to Bob. Because this hash is salted with Alice's random string, Bob will not at this point be able to determine what Alice's chosen outcome is.
Bob does the coin flip, and sends the result, heads or tails, to Alice. Alice sends Bob her chosen outcome and her random string. Both parties can determine who won by comparing Alice's chosen outcome to Bob's coin flip.
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The coin toss is also used in determining the Second Chance winner's prize. Clarifying feelings[ edit ] A technique attributed to Sigmund Freud to help in making difficult decisions is to toss a coin not actually to determine the decision, but to clarify the decision-maker's feelings.
He explained: "I did not say you should follow blindly what the coin tells you. What I want you to do is to note what the coin indicates. Then look into your own reactions.
Ask yourself: Am I pleased? Am I disappointed?
Distribuie pe LinkeIN Cetățenii europeni speră și cer, pe bună dreptate, ca moneda euro este o monedă își țină promisiunea. Crearea monedei euro a reprezentat o etapă importantă în procesul de integrare europeană și un simbol al unității europene, însă trebuie să reprezinte și baza creșterii economice și a competitivității în Uniunea noastră, precum și a prosperității și garantării de locuri de muncă pentru cetățenii europeni. Grupul PPE consideră că toate țările din UE pentru care nu este prevăzută o clauză de neparticipare ar trebui să fie membre ale zonei euro, cu condiția ca toate criteriile să fie îndeplinite, deoarece acest lucru va contribui la succesul tuturor economiilor noastre. Modul în care Grupul PPE a reacționat la criza datoriilor din zona euro— care constă în politici economice sustenabile și disciplină fiscală — s-a dovedit eficace și fructuos, deși nu subestimăm eforturile pe care cetățenii au trebuit să le facă în această perioadă dificilă.